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Sciences Behind Phyto-Aromatherapy

There are a lot of questions around the sciences behind phyto-aromatherapy. There are no doubts about the properties of essential oils, but what studies have been done to prove it? What clinical trials have been performed to support these claims?

We created this little library to list all the studies that we have found on the essential oils and their benefits. We hope it can help you learn more about essential oils, their benefits and on the immune system overall. The studies, articles, reviews listed below are from the National Center for Biotechnology Information advances science and health.

 

Essential oils: Extraction Techniques, Therapeutic and Pharmaceutical Potential - A Review

"This manuscript reviewed the major research studies in the field and discussed several research findings on the chemical composition of essential oils, methods of oil extraction, and application of these oils in pharmaceutical and therapeutic fields. These essential oils can be used as anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, and as skin permeation enhancer agents."

 

The Effects of Essential Oils and Terpenes in Relation to Their Routes of Intake and Application

" This review studies the effects of essential oils and terpenes in interdisciplinary approaches because of the multiple methods of their use: diffusers, which will
use the olfactory system primarily; drinking, which will use primarily the digestive system; and topical application, which will enter primarily through the skin... It shows the scientific evidence on, e.g., the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-microbial effects at the chemical compound level compared to the effects of complete essential oils. Understanding the effects of each constituent and combinations of constituents in in vivo and in vitro studies may lead to the development of new medical agents for wound healing, bacterial infection, and healing of other diseases, including cancer. It is time to thoroughly test and determine the large potential of terpenes in essential oils in order to improve health conditions because of their impacts on the olfactory system, the skin, and the gastro-intestinal system."

 

A comprehensive review of the antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral potential of essential oils and their chemical constituents against drug-resistant microbial pathogens.

"This review article is to compile these antimicrobial essential oils and their constituents from reliable sources and put them together. The published literature indicates that essential oils possess a wide-spectrum of antibacterial, antifungal and even anti-viral activity. Essential oils have also been shown to inhibit the growth of drug-resistant microbial strains which are even difficult to be treated by conventional antibiotics...Several essential oils have antiviral activities against many RNA and DNA viruses, such as type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2), dengue virus type 2, influenza virusadeno virus type 3, poliovirus, Junin virus, and coxsackievirus B1. In conclusion, the current review article discusses in detail the various aspects of antimicrobial activity of essential oils in a comprehensive manner."

 

Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils Possessing Anti-Influenza A/WS/33 Virus Activity.

"This study demonstrated anti-influenza activity in 11 essential oils tested, with marjoram, clary sage and anise essential oils being the most effective at reducing visible cytopathic effects of the A/WS/33 virus. All 3 oils contained linalool, suggesting that this may have anti-influenza activity. Further investigation is needed to characterize the antiviral activity of linalool against influenza A/WS/33 virus."

 

Elucidation of the synergistic action of Mentha Piperita essential oil with common antimicrobials.

 "Mentha piperita L. essential oil (EO) is employed for external use as antipruritic, astringent, rubefacient and antiseptic. Several studies demonstrated its significant antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial properties. The aim of this work is the study of the synergistic effects of M. piperita EO with antibacterials and antifungals that are widely available and currently prescribed in therapies against infections. The observed strong synergy may constitute a potential new approach to counter the increasing phenomenon of multidrug resistant bacteria and fungi."

 

Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

"New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains...With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs."

 

Chemical analysis and in vitro antiviral and antifungal activities of essential oils from Glechon spathulata and Glechon marifolia.

This study reviews the chemical composition for G. spathulata and G. marifolia essential oils as very similar. The oil of G. spathulata can be promising as a new antifungal agent against dermatophytes. The findings add important information to the biological activity of Glechon species essential oils, specifically its antiviral and antidermatophytic properties.

 

Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.

"Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry."

 

Antioxidant, antimicrobial and toxicological properties of Schinus molle L. essential oils.

"This study showed that EOs of leaves and fruits of Schinus molle demonstrated antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, suggesting their potential use in food or pharmaceutical industries."

 

The biological and pharmacological activity of essential oils in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases

"This article describes the biological and pharmacological properties of herbal essential oils and some of their components, and summarizes the future prospects of potential application of essential oils in the prevention and treatment of infectious human diseases. In this review also possible mechanisms of their biological action are presented."

 

Recent patents regarding essential oils and the significance of their constituents in human health and treatment.

"Essential oils derived from aromatic plants possess useful properties concerning human health, such as antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. They can be used as natural alternatives to synthetic preparations to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by multidrug resistant microorganisms. They are used successfully to treat respiratory tract, digestive system and skin infections. Many of them may be applied in anticancer therapy, cardiovascular and nervous system disorders, as well as to reduce the level of cholesterol and decrease and regulate the glucose level. Due to their ability to stimulate adrenal and estrogen hormone production and their antimicrobial properties, they are useful in the treatment of gynecological diseases. Oils are commonly used in the food and cosmetic industry. The present paper describes recent patents concerning potential uses of essential oils in human health and treatment of diseases."

 

Chemical composition of 8 eucalyptus species' essential oils and the evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities.

"E. odorata showed the strongest activity against S. aureus, H. influenzae, S. agalactiae, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and against all the tested fungal strains. In addition, E. odorata oil showed the most cytotoxic effect. However, the best antiviral activity appeared with E. bicostata... The essential oil of E. astringens showed antiviral activity only when incubated with virus prior to cell infection. This activity was dose-dependent and the antiviral activity diminished with the decreasing essential oil concentration."

 

Essential oils in combination and their antimicrobial properties.

"Essential oils (EOs) have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. They are widely used in medicine and the food industry for these purposes. The increased interest in alternative natural substances is driving the research community to find new uses and applications of these substances. EOs and their components show promising activities against many food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms when tested in vitro. In food systems, higher concentrations of EOs are needed to exert similar antibacterial effects as those obtained in in vitro assays. The use of combinations of EOs and their isolated components are thus new approaches to increase the efficacy of EOs in foods, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the antimicrobial efficacy of these combinations. A survey of the methods used for the determination of the interactions and mechanisms involved in the antimicrobial activities of these combinations are also reported."

 

Chemical compositions and anti-influenza activities of essential oils from Mosla dianthera.

"Mosla dianthera as an aromatic herb is used in folk medicine for the treatment of cough, colds, fever, bronchitis, nasal congestion and headache. This review shows that MPE could exhibit therapeutical effects in IVA infected mice as a suppressor of IVA replication and inflammatory mediators and a promoter of antioxidant potentials. Therefore, MDEO could provide a safe and effective therapeutic candidate for treatment of influenza and its subsequent viral pneumonia."

 

Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: study on the mechanism of action.

"Our previous study demonstrated that Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) had an interesting antiviral activity against Influenza A in MDCK cells. In fact, when we tested TTO and some of its components, we found that TTO had an inhibitory effect on influenza virus replication at doses below the cytotoxic dose;... The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of TTO and its active components against Influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 in MDCK cells."

 

In vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil.

The study was to investigate the in vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (TTO) and its main components, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene and alpha-terpineol.

These data show that TTO has an antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 and that antiviral activity has been principally attributed to terpinen-4-ol, the main active component.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:

TTO should be a promising drug in the treatment of influenza virus infection.

 

Essential oils of aromatic plants with antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and cytotoxic properties--an overview.

"The abundant use of anti-infective agents resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses. To overcome the increasing resistance of pathogenic microbes, a variety of medicinal plants have been screened worldwide for their antimicrobial properties. The aim is to find new, effective antimicrobial agents with novel modes of actions. Essential oils derived from aromatic medicinal plants have been reported to exhibit exceptionally good antimicrobial effects against bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and viruses. The progress of this expanding scientific field will be documented by the most important results published in the last decade."

 

The treatment of respiratory ailments with essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants

"In-vitro and clinical studies suggest the therapeutic potential of aromatic herbs in the treatment of respiratory ailments. The pharmacological and clinical activity of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus globulus, Mentha piperita, Origanum syriacum, Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis, include anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral activities. Some of these herbs have direct activity on the respiratory tract, the coughing reflex and the airflow in the nasal tract. This article reviews the evidence on the efficacy and safety of aromatic trees and herbs which grow in Israel, in the scope of the field of otorhinolaryngology."

 

Effect of eucalyptus essential oil on respiratory bacteria and viruses.

"The activity of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil was determined for 120 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 20 isolates of S. pneumoniae, 40 isolates of S. agalactiae, 20 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, 40 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae, 30 isolates of H. parainfluenzae, 10 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 10 isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two viruses, a strain of adenovirus and a strain of mumps virus, all obtained from clinical specimens of patients with respiratory tract infections...The antiviral activity, assessed by means of virus yield experiments titered by the end-point dilution method for adenovirus, and by plaque reduction assay for mumps virus, disclosed only a mild activity on mumps virus."

 

Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review.

"Essential oils and their volatile constituents are used widely to prevent and treat human disease. The possible role and mode of action of these natural products is discussed with regard to the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis and thrombosis, as well as their bioactivity as antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidants and antidiabetic agents. Their application as natural skin penetration enhancers for transdermal drug delivery and the therapeutic properties of essential oils in aroma and massage therapy will also be outlined."

 

The influence of essential oils on the process of wound healing: a review of the current evidence.

"This paper reports on a literature review of evidence on the influence of essential oils on wound healing and their potential application in clinical practice. It focuses mainly on tea tree, lavender, chamomile, thyme and ocimum oils."